Starea mediului in Republica Moldova
Raport popular, 2004

State of the environment in the Republic of Moldova
Popular report, 2004
About the Republic of Moldova
rom eng

Index

Moldova - Land of life and peace

Air bazin

The water resources

Soil - the main natural richness

Biological Diversity

Wastes

Environement potection policy

Other problems

Tables, figures, pictures

Bibliography

About report

Republic of Moldova : Declared its sovereignty on June 23, 1990 ; Declared its state independency on August 27, 1991 ; became UN member on March 2, 1992.

Republic of Moldova is situated in the South-East part of Europe , between 45°28' – 48°28' northern latitude (350 km) and between 26°40' - 30°06' eastern longitude (150 km), on an area of 33844 sq. km. It has a direct exit to lower Danube River and proximity to the Black Sea , being bordered by Romania in the West (450 km) and by Ukraine in the North, East and South (939 km).


Monastery Suruceni (Photo: P.Balan)
The territory of the Republic is hilly in general with hills and plains, the plateaus being located mostly in the central part, which is slightly inclined from the North-West to South-East. The relief altitudes vary from 5 m (Giurgiulesti) to 429 m (Balanesti). The land use : agricultural land – 57,65%, the Reserve Fund – 16,91%, the Forestry and Environmental Protection Fund – 12,40%, locality spots – 9,09%, Water Fund – 2,19%, for Industry, Transportation and other special use – 1,75%.

Environment and Natural Resources.

The waters of Moldova belong to the Black Sea basin. The hydrographic network of the Republic of Moldova is made up by circa 3,260 rivers and steams with a total length of over 16,000 km. Likewise, there are 3,532 lakes and reservoirs with a total area of 333 sq. km and with an accumulation volume of 1.8 cubic km. Danube and Nistru are the main rivers, and Prut, Raut, Bâc and Botna are the main watercourses. The lakes of Moldova are small and most of them are located in the meadows of Prut and Nistru Rivers .

The soil is the main natural value/asset of Moldova . One can find here a variety of types of soils, the chernozem soils being predominant (occupy 75% of the total).

Flora on the territory of Moldova is represented by circa 5,513 species, out of which 1,989 are species of superior plants and 3,524 are species of inferior plants. The plants prevalence is under the influence of the relief and soil and climate components . The forest ecosystems are the richest in floristic composition (over 850 species), being followed by the Steppe ecosystems (over 600 species), meadow ecosystems (circa 650 species), petrofite (circa 250 species), aquatic and s wamps (circa 160 species). The deciduous forests have predominantly species of oaks, beeches, elms and hornbeams. The Steppe vegetation is rarely preserved as separate spots, mostly as fragments of associated steppe vegetation.

Fauna of Moldova is diverse and rich, making up five biotopes. Thus, the following species are registered: mammals - 70 species, birds – 281, crawlers and amphibians – 28, fish – 82 and invertebrates – over 15,000 species. The species are spread out variously within biotopes. For instance, wild boars, badgers, deer, different types of birds and crawlers have their habitat in forests, while the rodents – in the Steppe. The aquatic fauna is represented mostly by species of cat-fish, carps, flat-fish etc.

One can found different construction materials: granite, lime-stone, clay, gypsum, etc. on the territory of Moldova . There are also limited quantities of coal, petroleum and natural gas.

The Climate is temperate-continental, being influenced by the Atlantic airflows from the West, by the Mediterranean - from the South-West and by the excessive continental airflows from the North-East . The average temperatures reach the level of -3.5°C in January and +21.4°C in July. The warm periods last circa 193 days. In last period annual average temperatures increase (Table). The annual precipitations slightly decrease their intensity from the North-West towards South-East from 711 mm to la 600 mm accordingly. The largest quantity of precipitations falls in the “Codri” (large forest area in the Central part) Region.

Annual average air temperature °C for three monitoring stations of the Moldova

 
Annual average air temperature °C

Year/City

 

Briceni
Chisinau
Cahul
1960
8,4
10,6
11,2
1970
7,9
10,1
10,3
1975
9,0
10,8
11,0
1980
6,3
8,3
8,5
1985
6,5
8,0
8,2
1990
9,5
11,3
11,4
1991
8,0
9,4
9,3
1992
8,5
10,1
10,2
1993
7,8
9,4
9,3
1994
9,5
11,3
11,3
1995
8,4
10,0
10,0
1996
7,1
9,1
9,1
1997
7,7
9,4
9,1
1998
8,4
10,6
10,2
1999
9,2
11,0
10,9
2000
9,7
11,2
11,2
2001
8,8
10,3
10,4
2002
9,5
10,8
11,0

Force-majeur cases. Earthquakes, soil slides, floods, torrential rainfalls, wind-storms etc. are dangerous not only for separate human establishments, but also for the development of the country as a whole.

Population and human establishments. The Republic of Moldova has a population of 4.229 million (01.01.2003), being one of the countries with the highest population density in Europe : 125.1 persons per sq. kilometer. The population majority live in the rural area (54.7%), the urban part makes up 45.3% of the total.

Currently there are 1,860 inhabited localities, including 65 towns. The impact of human beings on the environment became an important element with approximately 5–7 thousand years ago. The main towns: Chisinau (the Capital of the Country), Balti, Tighina (Bender), Tiraspol .

Economy . The Republic of Moldova has been undergoing the transition period since 1991 and its economy is based on the intensive use of natural resources, including the biological ones. The Republic of Moldova is an agro-industrial country. The GPD per capita was 2,428 US Dollars to the Purchase Parity, which is three times lower than the world average. The inflation was 5.3% in 2002.

The History of the Republic of Moldova begins from the Principality of Moldova (1359) and is rich of heroic and dramatic events.

Religion . The majority (95%) of the population of the Republic of Moldova professes Orthodox Christianity. The minority part of the population professes Catholicism, Judaism, etc.

Cuisine and drinks.

The Nature of Moldova is very generous in grapes, fruit, vegetables, meat and milk products, cereals, which found their place in the national diverse and specific cuisine . The most famous dishes are: mamaliga – a mash from corn flour with a delicate and delicious taste; ragout (either meat or vegetable) and others.

The Moldovan beverages are very diverse: wine, sparkling wine, and strong drinks like vodka, brandy and cognac.

Traditions .

The Republic of Moldova has got multi-secular traditions that manifest themselves through carrying out different activities, including customs, ceremonies and folklore.

Currency.

The national currency if the Moldovan Leu, put into circulation on November 29, 1993 .

Tourism.

The opportunity to combine pleasure and usefulness always has existed in Moldova . There are many sites worth visiting in Moldova: the rural tourism, excursions to beautiful places and historical locations; “wine tours” to the largest underground towns from Europe: Milestii Mici, Cricova, Cojusna; the Moldovan annual Wine Festival held in the month of October; excursions to museums, churches and monasteries.

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Ministerul Ecologiei si Resurselor Naturale a Republicii Moldova,
Institutul National de Ecologie. GRID-Arendal
25.12.2004

Copyright © 2004 INECO Moldova